Diseases – Healthy Living http://www.knowabouthealth.com Your daily dose of health Tue, 11 Nov 2014 13:04:22 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.4.10 Multiple Sclerosis is triggered by friendly bacteria residing in the gut http://www.knowabouthealth.com/ms-is-triggered-by-friendly-bacteria-residing-in-the-gut/9028/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/ms-is-triggered-by-friendly-bacteria-residing-in-the-gut/9028/#comments Sun, 30 Oct 2011 06:01:22 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=9028 Related posts:
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Gut flora consists of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts and is the largest reservoir of human flora. The human body, consists of about 100 trillion cells, carries about ten times as many microorganisms in the intestines. The metabolic activities performed by these bacteria resemble those of an organ. It is estimated that these gut flora have around 100 times as many genes as there are in the human genome.

Bacteria make up most of the flora in the colon and up to 60% of the dry mass of feces, between 300 and 1000 different species live in the gut. The microorganisms perform a host of useful functions, such as fermenting unused energy substrates, training the immune system, preventing growth of harmful, pathogenic bacteria, regulating the development of the gut, producing vitamins for the host (such as biotin and vitamin K), and producing hormones to direct the host to store fats. However, in certain conditions, some species are thought to be capable of causing disease by producing infection or increasing cancer risk for the host.

Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease in which the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord are damaged, leading to demyelination and scarring as well as a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms. Disease onset usually occurs in young adults, and it is more common in women. MS affects the ability of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord to communicate with each other effectively. Most likely MS occurs as a result of some combination of genetic, environmental and infectious factors, and possibly other factors like vascular problems.

MS is triggered by friendly bacteria residing in the gut
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology in Munich, Germany have found an astonishing evidence that suggests MS is triggered by natural intestinal flora, the so-called friendly bacteria that reside in the gut. They say the bacteria first activated the immune T-cells, then the B-cells, which resulted in an attack on the myelin layer in the brain, developing brain inflammation similar to MS. MS is an autoimmune disorder where the body’s own immune system attacks and damages the myelin sheath that insulates the axons which are like the “cabling” that connects nerve cells or neurons to one another.

They discovered this by allowing some of the genetically modified mice to continue with their normal gut bacteria intact, while removing the intestinal flora in the others and keeping them under sterile conditions.The mice that kept their gut bacteria developed MS-like symptoms.

But the mice that had their gut bacteria removed remained healthy, despite their genetic predisposition to MS. They also had fewer T-cells in their gut, their spleens produced fewer inflammatory substances like cytokines, and their B-cells produced few if any antibodies against myelin.

However, when they then inoculated these mice with normal gut flora, their T-cells and B-cells increased, as did their cytokine and antibody production, and they eventually developed symptoms and fell ill.

Senior researcher, Gurumoorthy Krishnamoorthy told, “It appears that the immune system is activated in two stages: to begin, the T cells in the lymph vessels of the intestinal tract become active and proliferate. Together with the surface proteins of the myelin layer, these then stimulate the B cells to form pathogenic antibodies. Both processes trigger inflammatory reactions in the brain which progressively destroy the myelin layer – a process that is very similar to the way multiple sclerosis develops in humans.”

The team now wants to investigate the complete microbial genomes of people with MS and compare them to people without MS.

Via

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Reduced bladder cancer risk by high fluid intake http://www.knowabouthealth.com/reduced-bladder-cancer-risk-by-high-fluid-intake/8902/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/reduced-bladder-cancer-risk-by-high-fluid-intake/8902/#comments Wed, 26 Oct 2011 10:59:20 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8902 Related posts:
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Bladder cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply without control in urinary bladder.The bladder is a hollow, muscular organ that stores urine; it is located in the pelvis. The most common type of bladder cancer begins in cells lining the inside of the bladder. A study suggested that by consuming high amount of fluid, you can reduce your risk for bladder cancer.

What are main symptoms of bladder cancer?
Bladder cancer characteristically causes blood in the urine; this may be visible to the naked eye or detectable only by microscope. Other possible symptoms include pain during urination, frequent urination or feeling the need to urinate without results.

What are main sources of bladder cancer?
Tobacco smoking is the main known contributor to urinary bladder cancer, about 50% cases. 30% of bladder tumors probably result from occupational exposure in the workplace to carcinogens such as benzidine. Occupations at risk are bus drivers, rubber workers, motor mechanics, leather (including shoe) workers, blacksmiths, machine setters and mechanics. Hairdressers are thought to be at risk as well because of their frequent exposure to permanent hair dyes.

Plenty of fluids intake may result in some protection against bladder cancer
Jiachen Zhou, a doctoral candidate in epidemiology at Brown University, conducted a study and concluded that the fluids may flush out potential carcinogens before they have the opportunity to cause tissue damage that could lead to bladder cancer. The study was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health.

Researchers evaluated the association between fluid intake and bladder cancer among 47,909 male participants in the prospective Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) during a 22-year period. Participants answered a questionnaire about fluid intake every four years. Researchers found that high total fluid intake (more than 2,531 milliliters per day) was associated with a 24% reduction in risk for bladder cancer among men.

The researchers also observed that the men drank fewer liquids, particularly water, as they aged and opined that physicians should recommend the patients to drink plenty of fluids.

The good thing about study is that you can reduce the bladder cancer risk by drinking water, which is cheap and side effects free as compared to take medication to prevent it.  Drinking of adequate quantity of water is beneficial for your health in general and you should do it on daily basis.

Healthy Drinking!

Via

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Surgeon removes eight pound hepatic malignant liver tumor http://www.knowabouthealth.com/surgeon-removes-eight-pound-hepatic-malignant-liver-tumor/8870/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/surgeon-removes-eight-pound-hepatic-malignant-liver-tumor/8870/#comments Mon, 24 Oct 2011 10:13:27 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8870 Related posts:
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Liver tumors or hepatic tumors are tumors or growths on or in the liver. Several distinct types of tumors can develop in the liver because the liver is made up of various cell types. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Eight pound tumor was successfully removed from a person suffering from hepatic malignant liver tumor by physicians at Loyola University Medical Center.

What are different types of liver tumors?
Malignant (cancerous) cases are metastases tumors, frequently of the GI tract. The most frequent, malignant, primary liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma.

Benign cases are Hemangiomas. These are the most common type of benign liver tumor, found in up to 7% of autopsy specimens. They start in blood vessels. Most of these tumors do not cause symptoms and do not need treatment. Some may bleed and need to be removed if it is mild to severe.

Hepatic adenomas: These benign epithelial liver tumors develop in the liver and are an uncommon occurrence, found mainly in women using estrogens as contraceptives, or in cases of steroid abuse. They are, in most cases, located in the right hepatic lobe and are frequently seen as solitary. The size of adenomas range from 1 to 30 cm. Symptoms associated with hepatic adenomas are all associated with large lesions  which can cause intense abdominal pain.

Surgeon Removes Eight Pound Liver Tumor
Dr. Margo Shoup, chief of the Division of Surgical Oncology at Loyola University Medical Center was able to remove the entire eight pound tumor from the lever of Muhich. Two years later, Muhich remains cancer-free.

Muhich visited a cardiologist for a heart rhythm disorder, where he found out about his cancer. The tumor was found to be responsible for causing the irregular heart rhythm as it was pressing against his vena cava, the largest vein in the body. This caused restricted blood flow to the heart and hence leading to atrial fibrillation. Cardiologist pointed out the growth in Muhich’s liver, which was later diagnosed as a rare cancer called hepatic sarcoma.

Shoup found that, despite its size, the tumor was still contained and had not metastasized. It took five hour operation to remove the  tumor. This procedure is associated with a significant risk of severe bleeding if the vena cava ruptured. Severe bleeding also could erupt from the liver, or from the tumor itself. The good news about Muhich’s procedure was that he did not suffer from any post procedure complications fully recovered with his heart rhythm returned to normal.

Shoup observed “The highest risk of recurrence for hepatic sarcomas occurs during the first two years. Since he has reached the two year point without a recurrence, his prognosis is excellent”.

Initially, when Muhich consulted physicians about his hepatic cancer, he was turned down and was referred to Dr. Shoup.  It is good to see that Muhich was able to dodge the rare type of cancer, which was not only affecting his liver, but also was affect his heart rhythm.

Via

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Mammograms should begin at age 40 for early detection- A Study http://www.knowabouthealth.com/mammograms-should-begin-at-age-40-for-early-detection-a-study/8773/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/mammograms-should-begin-at-age-40-for-early-detection-a-study/8773/#comments Tue, 18 Oct 2011 03:00:59 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8773 Related posts:
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Mammography is the process of using low-energy-X-rays to examine the human  breast and is used as a diagnostic and a screening tool.  Mammography is a good tool for the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic masses and/or micro-calcifications. Most doctors believe that mammography reduces deaths from breast cancer due to early detection.

Like all x-rays, mammograms use doses of ionizing radiation to create images.   Radiologists then analyze the image for any abnormal findings. It is recommended that women, with no risk factors, have screening mammographies done in every 2 years between age 50 and 74.

Mammograms should begin at age 40
Dr. Jamie Caughran, Medical Director of the Comprehensive Breast Center at the Lacks Cancer Center in Grand Rapids, MI, who led the research team for a recent study on  mammography concluded that women age 40 and up should use the method for early detection. High-risk patients should seek advice from their doctors about the age for and frequency of tests.

He said “While there has been ongoing debate about when and how breast cancer screening should occur, this study validates that women who undergo regular mammography screening present at earlier stages and often require less aggressive treatment than those who do not.”

This  study was completed this year with data from nearly 6,000 women with breast cancer and counters guidelines by the U.S. Preventative Services Task Force, which recommends that women get mammograms every two years beginning at age 50.

It was found that:

  • For women diagnosed with breast cancer before age 50, 49% of the cases were detected by mammogram. Of those, 18% were Stage 2, and 4% were Stage 3.
  • For women diagnosed with breast cancer before age 50, 46% of the cases were detected by feel. Of those, 50% were Stage 2, and 17% were Stage 3.

Mammography and its utility in detection of breast cancer has been a topic of debate, especially for women with age 40 and above.  U.S. Preventative Services Task Force was criticized last year for bumping the recommended age for regular mammography check > 50.  As more scientific data is available with improved imaging technologies may be it is time to reconsider the check up for women with age >40.

Via

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SGK1 protein found to be a “fertility switch” for women http://www.knowabouthealth.com/sgk1-protein-found-to-be-a-fertility-switch-for-women/8765/ Tue, 18 Oct 2011 02:28:10 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8765 Related posts:
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Infertility is a worldwide problem that affects >7% of women of child-bearing age. More than half of those affected seek medical advice in the hope of eventually being able to become a mother. Causes of female infertility can be broadly classified regarding as acquired or genetic, or strictly by location.

Around 1% women trying to conceive have recurrent miscarriages, defined as the loss of three or more consecutive pregnancies.

SGK1 Protein
SGK1 is the most intensively studied encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase that is highly similar to the rat serum and glucocorticoid induced protein kinase (SGK). This gene was identified in a screen of hepatocellular genes regulated in response to cellular hydration or swelling. Cellular hydration is a catabolic signal, stimulating glycogenolysis and proteolysis, and inhibiting protein and glycogen synthesis. This kinase has been shown to be important in activating certain potassium, sodium, and chloride channels.

SGK1 Protein- an enzyme that acts as a “fertility switch”
Jan Brosens,a researcher at Imperial College London found that high levels of a protein called SGK1 are linked with infertility, while low levels of it make a woman more likely to have a miscarriage. Thus this enzyme acts as a “fertility switch” and say their findings could help treat infertility and miscarriage and may also act as contraceptives.

In the study, Brosens’ team examined the tissue samples from the womb lining, donated by 106 women who were being treated either for unexplained infertility or recurrent miscarriage. They had been trying to get pregnant for two years or more, and the most common reasons for infertility had been ruled out.

The researchers found that the womb lining in these women had high levels of the enzyme SGK1, while the women suffering recurrent miscarriage had low levels of SGK1.

In further experiments using mice, the team found that levels of SGK1 in the womb lining decline during the fertile window in mice. When extra copies of an SGK1 gene were implanted into the womb lining, the mice were unable to get pregnant. This suggests that a fall in SGK1 levels is essential for making the uterus receptive to embryos.

They Concluded:

“Low levels of SGK1 make the womb lining vulnerable to cellular stress, which might explain why low SGK1 was more common in women who have had recurrent miscarriage. In the future, we might take biopsies of the womb lining to identify abnormalities that might give them a higher risk of pregnancy complications, so that we can start treating them before they get pregnant.”

This research may eventually lead to ways to manipulate the effects of this protein to increase the likelihood of successful pregnancy. However, further research will make  practical application of these findings a reality.

Via

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Tiny RNA molecules microRNA-101 starve cancer cells http://www.knowabouthealth.com/tiny-rna-molecules-microrna-101-starve-cancer-cells/8653/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/tiny-rna-molecules-microrna-101-starve-cancer-cells/8653/#comments Tue, 11 Oct 2011 23:21:01 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8653 Related posts:
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Autophagy, or autophagocytosis, is a catabolic process involving the degradation of a cell’s own components through the lysosomal machinery. It is a tightly regulated process that plays a normal part in cell growth, development, and homeostasis, helping to maintain a balance between the synthesis, degradation, and subsequent recycling of cellular products. It is a major mechanism by which a starving cell reallocates nutrients from unnecessary processes to more-essential processes. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of cellular self-digestion in which proteins and organelles are degraded through delivery to lysosomes. Defects in this process are implicated in numerous human diseases including cancer.

Autophagic processes
The most well-known mechanism of autophagy involves the formation of a membrane around a targeted region of the cell, separating the contents from the rest of the cytoplasm. The resultant vesicle then fuses with a lysosome and subsequently degrades the contents.

Starving of Cancer Cells by microRNA-101
Many cancer cells have an increased capacity to carry out activity of autophagy , which  give them an unfair advantage over normal cells. Defects in the process have been associated with a number of other health disorders.

Professor Andres H. Lund, principal scientist at the University of Copenhagen and his team has developed a small molecule known as microRNA-101 to block this process, and to also shed light on its mechanics. According to them, microRNA-101 can be used specifically to increase the sensitivity of breast cancer cells towards a commonly used treatment.

They identified the tumour suppressive miRNA, miR-101as a potent inhibitor of basal, etoposide- and rapamycin-induced autophagy. Through transcriptome profiling, they identified three unique miR-101 targets e.g. STMN1, RAB5A and ATG4D. siRNA-mediated depletion of these genes phenocopied the effect of miR-101, resulting their involvement in autophagy regulation. Importantly, overexpression of STMN1 could partially rescue cells from miR-101-mediated inhibition of autophagy, indicating a functional importance for this target.

The researchers concluted that breast cancer cells become more sensitive towards treatment with the anti-hormone Tamoxifen, when they turn off the autophagy system. Resistance against tamoxifen is a large problem in the treatment of breast cancer, through microRNA-101.

Via

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Oral sex may cause more throat cancer than smoking due to HPV http://www.knowabouthealth.com/oral-sex-may-cause-more-throat-cancer-than-smoking-due-to-hpv/8618/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/oral-sex-may-cause-more-throat-cancer-than-smoking-due-to-hpv/8618/#comments Mon, 10 Oct 2011 02:33:47 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8618 Related posts:
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  7. UK scientists discovered WWP2 gene that can stop cancer growth
  8. Combo of Glaxo’s Tykerb, Roche’s Herceptin effective in early breast cancer
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  12. Increased risk of prostate cancer by eating eggs
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Throat cancer forms in tissues of the pharynx. A new study conducted at Ohio State University indicate that oral sex can increase the risk for throat cancer.

What are forms of throat cancer?
Pharynx, the hollow tube inside the neck that starts behind the nose and ends at the top of the windpipe and esophagus, is generally the location of throat cancer. Throat cancer includes cancer of the nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose), the oropharynx (the middle part of the pharynx), and the hypopharynx (the bottom part of the pharynx). Cancer of the larynx (voice box) may also be included as a type of throat cancer. Most throat cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells that look like fish scales). Also called pharyngeal cancer.

What are symptoms of throat cancer?
Abnormal (high-pitched) breathing sounds, cough and coughing up blood, difficulty in swallowing, neck pain, sore throat that continues for 1 – 2 weeks and does not get cured by medication and swelling or lumps in the neck.

Oral sex leads to more cases of throat cancer
Prof. Maura Gillison of Ohio State University in Columbus and his colleagues have concluded that the sexually transmitted HPV, a virus spread by oral sex and known for infecting genitals, can cause oral cancer.

Researchers examined 271 throat-tumor samples collected over 20 years and found that the majority of oral cancer were due to the human papillomavirus, or HPV.  Researchers now believe that 70% of oropharyngeal cancers are caused by HPV infection. It was further concluded that by 2020, the virus-linked throat tumor which mostly affected men, will become more common than HPV-caused cervical cancer.

Maura Gillison told  “The burden of cancer caused by HPV is going to shift from women to men in this decade. What we believe is happening is that the number of sexual partners and exposure to HPV has risen over that same time period.”

Gillison further said that she worked with researchers at Whitehouse Station, New Jersey-based Merck & Co several years ago to design a study in men and the trial “was canceled,” after Merck acquired Schering-Plough Corp. in 2009.

Looks like this is not the first study, which establishes link between HPV virus and throat cancer and has been a subject of research from several years.  Researchers acknowledge that adequate steps are needed in order to have control over this situation.

Via

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Steve Jobs – Medical science failed to save a computer novel http://www.knowabouthealth.com/steve-jobs-medical-science-failed-to-save-a-computer-novel/8548/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/steve-jobs-medical-science-failed-to-save-a-computer-novel/8548/#comments Thu, 06 Oct 2011 23:08:38 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8548 Related posts:
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Steven Paul Jobs, 56, died Wednesday at his home with his family. The co-founder and, until last August, CEO of Apple Inc was the most celebrated person in technology and business on the planet. No one will take issue with the official Apple statement that “The world is immeasurably better because of Steve.”

It was known that Mr. Jobs suffered from pancreatic cancer more than seven years ago and recently had a liver transplant. He was treated for an islet cell neuroendocrine tumor, a slow moving and relatively treatable form of pancreatic cancer, which is more often associated with a faster spreading much more aggressive pancreatic tumor. He also underwent the liver transplant about 2 years ago.

Medical Experts not involved with Mr. Jobs care, speculated that cancer was most likely the cause of his death although complications from the liver transplant, the transplanted organ ceasing to function or problems with the immune-suppressing medicines (to prevent organ rejection) might also have been involved.

Many doctors speculated he had a Whipple procedure, in which part of the pancreas, part of the small intestine and in some cases part of the stomach are removed and the digestive system is reconstructed.

Jobs said little about pancreatic cancer struggle
The Apple founder long kept information on his illness behind a firewall and no body new details, which emerged immediately after his death.

However, medical experts say Jobs most likely needed the transplant because his cancer came back or spread. They said his death could have been from cancer, the new liver not working, or complications from immune-suppressing medicines to prevent organ rejection.

A liver transplant can cure Jobs’ type of cancer, but “if it were to come back, it’s usually in one to two years,” said Dr. Michael Pishvaian, cancer specialist at Georgetown University’s Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer centre.

The Apple chief never revealed whether the cancer had spread to his lymph nodes or liver, or how extensive his surgery was. Many doctors speculated he had a Whipple procedure, in which part of the pancreas, part of the small intestine and in some cases part of the stomach are removed and the digestive system is reconstructed.

Several years later, Jobs was dramatically thinner and gaunt. In January 2009, he attributed those problems to a hormone imbalance and said there was a simple treatment for it. A few weeks later, he went on a medical leave and then had a liver transplant that was kept secret for two months.

Even then, Jobs would not say why the transplant was needed, though doctors said spread of his cancer to the liver was the likely explanation. Usually transplants aren’t done for people with cancer, but “there is some support for the idea that a liver transplant can be curative” for a neuroendocrine tumor as long as the cancer has not spread beyond the liver, Pishvaian said.

Average survival for people with neuroendocrine tumors that have spread is seven to eight years, and some patients have survived 20 to 30 years, said Dr. Martin Heslin, cancer surgery chief at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Goodbye Steve Jobs ~ Another 20+ years would have served you and most of the world much better.  Last but not the least, I liked the statement by Obama “Steve was among the greatest of American innovators — brave enough to think differently, bold enough to believe he could change the world and talented enough to do it.”

Via

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Hormonal contraception consumption increases HIV probablity http://www.knowabouthealth.com/hormonal-contraception-consumption-increases-hiv-probablity-2/8488/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/hormonal-contraception-consumption-increases-hiv-probablity-2/8488/#comments Wed, 05 Oct 2011 02:14:51 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8488 Related posts:
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Contraceptive pills are commonly available medications taken for the purpose of birth control or safe sex. Two types of female oral contraceptive pills are widely available. These pills contains an oestrogen and/or a progestogen, and is taken once per day. A new study reveals that probability of HIV is enhanced by intake of hormonal contraceptives.

Increased risk of HIV
Jared Baeten, MD, of the University of Washington in Seattle, and colleagues found that HIV-negative women using hormonal contraception had nearly twice the risk of catching HIV as compared to women using other methods or none. They also found that HIV-negative male partners of women with the virus also face an increased risk if the women use hormonal methods of contraception, mainly injections of long-acting depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). 

The researchers acknowledged that the study raises important public health questions and needs a randomized trial to confirm or refute the findings. Research involved study of couples and the following observations were made:

  • Among 1,314 couples where man was HIV-positive, the rate of HIV acquisition for women was 6.61 per 100 person-years if they used hormonal contraception, compared with 3.78 per 100 person-years if they did not.
  • Similarly, among the 2,476 couples in which the woman was HIV-positive, the rate of HIV transmission to the uninfected male partner was 2.61 per 100 person-years if women used hormonal contraception and 1.51 per 100 person-years if they did not.

However they cautioned that the purpose this study study was not to to examine the contraception issue, therefore the women consuming hormonal contraception were relatively small in proportion and few infections occurred between them and their partners.

The study does raise a crucial link between hormonal contraceptives and HIV infection.  I think, a larger clinical trial should be conducted in order to address the issue.

Via

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iPhone based Application to treat Presbyopia http://www.knowabouthealth.com/iphone-based-application-to-treat-presbyopia/8464/ Wed, 05 Oct 2011 01:48:44 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8464 Related posts:
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Presbyopia is a condition in which the lens of the eye becomes progressively unable to focus on objects close to the viewer. The condition is a normal part of the aging process. The most common treatment for those suffering from presbyopia is corrective lenses, either eyeglasses or contacts either reading glasses or bifocals. Even the most common type of eye surgery, LASIK, is not effective for the treatment of this. An iPhone app addresses presbyopia by stimulating the visual cortex.

iPhone based application
Ucansi
, a U.S. company based in Israel, has developed their application called “Glassesof”. This iPhone based application can help the patients with presbyopia to see up close. This application is developed to boost visual acuity by using a proprietary method that affects the brain’s visual cortex performance for a longer period of time.

Principle of application
Similar to computers binary code, everything captured by the human eye is translated into digital binary form i.e. “0” and “1” by the vision system in the brain. Those “0” and “1” are translated into visual images such as Gabor patches that vary by their spatial frequency, contrast and spatial orientation and  stimulate the neurons in the early visual cortex of the brain.

“GlassesOff™ application enhances the visual system’s image processing capabilities by using the optimal Gabor patches to stimulate the visual cortex. The treatment significantly boosts the speed and quality of image processing in the brain. On average, the patient is required to be trained 3 times per week, each  lasting for a 15 min, a total for 3 months. Once eliminating the need for reading glasses,  maintenance training protocol is required for 2-3 treatment session per month.”

Ucansi, has termed the method  as “using the brain as glasses”. They have further indicated that the application will cost about $95 and will become available early next year.

Via

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