Drugs – Healthy Living http://www.knowabouthealth.com Your daily dose of health Tue, 11 Nov 2014 13:04:22 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.4.11 Study promises vaccine for metastatic Breast, Ovarian Cancer http://www.knowabouthealth.com/study-promises-vaccine-for-metastatic-breast-ovarian-cancer/9082/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/study-promises-vaccine-for-metastatic-breast-ovarian-cancer/9082/#comments Sun, 13 Nov 2011 13:34:00 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=9082 Related posts:
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Researchers at the Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology at the National Cancer Institute have found that treatment for metastatic breast cancer and ovarian cancers in women with a recombinant pox viral vaccine showed positive response.

Breast cancer 
Breast cancer
 (malignant breast neoplasm) is cancer originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. Cancers originating from ducts are known as ductal carcinomas; those originating from lobules are known as lobular carcinomas.

Metastatic breast cancer is a stage of breast cancer where the disease has spread to distant metastases. It is a complication of primary breast cancer, usually occurring several years after resection of the primary breast cancer. Metastatic breast cancer cells frequently differ from the preceding primary breast cancer in properties such as receptor status, have often developed resistance to several lines of previous treatment and acquired special properties that permit them metastasize to distant sites, making them especially dangerous. The prognosis is often poor.

Ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer
 is a cancerous growth arising from the ovary. Symptoms are frequently very subtle early on and may include: bloating, pelvic pain, difficulty eating and frequent urination, and are easily confused with other illnesses.

Most (more than 90%) ovarian cancers are classified as “epithelial” and are believed to arise from the surface (epithelium) of the ovary. However, some evidence suggests that the fallopian tube could also be the source of some ovarian cancers. Since the ovaries and tubes are closely related to each other, it is thought that these fallopian cancer cells can mimic ovarian cancer.

Vaccine for metastatic breast and Ovarian cancer
According to a trial published in Clinical Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, the clinical trials group at the Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology at the National Cancer Institute have found that treatment with a recombinant pox viral vaccine showed a positive response in both metastatic breast cancer and ovarian cancer.

James Gulley, M.D., Ph.D., director and deputy chief of the clinical trials group and colleagues enrolled 26 patients and assigned them to monthly vaccinations with the PANVAC vaccine, which contains transgenes for MUC-1, CEA and three T cell costimulatory molecules. These patients were already heavily pretreated, 21 of them receiving at least three prior chemotherapy treatments.

Among the 12 patients with breast cancer, median time to progression was 2.5 months and median overall survival was 13.7 months. Four patients had stable disease. For the 14 patients with ovarian cancer, median time to progression was two months and median overall survival was 15 months.

Mild injection-site reactions were the most common side effect after the vaccine treatment. However, Gulley said. ” More studies in the appropriate patient populations are required to adequately assess efficacy.”

The development of vaccine for metastatic breast cancer and ovarian cancer would be relief for cancer patients, especially if it can eliminate or at the least reduce the chemotherapy sessions. Hopefully a bigger clinical trial continue to show promise for cancer patients.

Via 

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Hereditary cancer risk lowered by long-term aspirin intake http://www.knowabouthealth.com/hereditary-cancer-risk-lowered-by-long-term-aspirin-intake/8984/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/hereditary-cancer-risk-lowered-by-long-term-aspirin-intake/8984/#comments Sat, 29 Oct 2011 19:25:15 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8984 Related posts:
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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid, is a salicylic drug, often used as an analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an anti-inflammatory medication. Salicylic acid, the main metabolite of aspirin, is an integral part of human and animal metabolism. While much of it is attributable to diet, a substantial part is synthesized endogenously. Low dose of daily aspirin can also reduce risk of cancer by 21% over five years. Yet another study substantiates the data that aspirin can help reduce risk of cancer.

Aspirin also has an anti platelet effect by inhibiting the production of thromboxane, which under normal circumstances binds platelet molecules together to create a patch over damaged walls of blood vessels. Because the platelet patch can become too large and also block blood flow, locally and downstream, aspirin is also used long-term, at low doses, to help prevent heart attacks, strokes, and blood clot formation in people at high risk of developing blood clots. It has also been established that low doses of aspirin may be given immediately after a heart attack to reduce the risk of another heart attack or of the death of cardiac tissue.

Hereditary Cancer
Approximately 5-10% of all cancers are hereditary, which means that changes (or mutations) in specific genes are passed from one blood relative to another. Individuals who inherit one of these gene changes will have a higher likelihood of developing cancer within their lifetime. Currently, there is an understanding about mutations in several genes that increase the risk for developing several types of cancer. However, genetic causes for all types of cancer could not be identified so far.

Aspirin has a major preventative effect on hereditary cancer
Professor Sir John Burn, scientist from the Universities of Newcastle and Leeds England, and his team were conducting the study of aspirin’s preventive benefits against heart attack and stroke found that participants had a much lower risk of developing cancer. The researchers explained that over the last two decades there has been growing evidence of a cancer-protecting quality in aspirin. However, this is the first proper randomized controlled study to look at aspirin’s effect on cancer risk.

The study tracked nearly 1,000 patients from 43 centers in 16 different countries. Some of them were followed for over ten years. The trial concentrated on individuals with Lynch syndrome, a rare inherited condition that raises the person’s risk of developing colon cancer, as well as other cancers, such as cancer of the skin, brain, upper urinary tract, uterus, hepatobiliary tract, small intestine, stomach, ovary, and endometrium. The higher risk of cancer is caused by inherited mutations that undermine DNA mismatch repair. Approximately half of all people with Lynch syndrome develop cancer, usually of the womb or bowel.

Out of these patients, 861 took either two aspirins (600mg) daily for two years or a placebo between 1999 and 2005. By 2007 there was no difference in cancer risk between the two groups. However, the researchers continued monitoring the patients. By 2010, they detected 34 new cases of colorectal cancer in the placebo group, compared to 19 in the aspirin group. Cancer incidence had more than halved in the aspirin group.

The investigating team, which includes people from various countries, say they are planning a large-scale follow-up study, hopefully with at least 3,000 people from around the world. The aim is to try out different aspirin dosages. Two aspirins per day will be compared to smaller amounts.

The research is promising and the advantage is that it offers relatively easy solution to reduce risk of cancer in genetically prone people.  Hopefully, the follow up study produced favorable results and people at risk of cancer can benefit from aspirin.

Via

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Slow growth of prostate cancer cells by fish oil supplemented diet http://www.knowabouthealth.com/slow-growth-of-prostate-cancer-cells-by-fish-oil-supplemented-diet/8951/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/slow-growth-of-prostate-cancer-cells-by-fish-oil-supplemented-diet/8951/#comments Sat, 29 Oct 2011 12:33:00 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8951 Related posts:
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Fish oil is an oil derived from the tissues of oily fish. Fish oils contain the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), precursors of eicosanoids that are known to reduce inflammation throughout the body and are thought to have many health benefits. Fish do not actually produce omega-3 fatty acids, but instead accumulate them by consuming either microalgae or prey fish that have accumulated omega-3 fatty acids from microalgae. A study revealed that fish oil is beneficial in slowing down the growth rate of prostate cancer.

Fatty predatory fish like sharks, sword fish, tilefish, and albacore tuna may be high in omega-3 fatty acids, but due to their position at the top of the food chain, these species can also accumulate toxic substances. For this reason, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends limiting consumption of certain (predatory) fish species (e.g. albacore tuna, shark, king mackerel, tilefish and swordfish) due to high levels of toxic contaminants such as mercury, dioxin, PCBs and chlordane.

The omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil are thought to be beneficial in treating hypertriglyceridemia, and possibly beneficial in preventing heart disease. Although, fish oil has many health benefits, there are also some studies that revealed that fish oil consumed during pregnancy, may not be beneficial for mental growth of child as thought.

Prostate cancer
Prostate cancer
 is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, there are cases of aggressive prostate cancers. The cancer cells may metastasize (spread) from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. Prostate cancer may cause pain, difficulty in urinating, problems during sexual intercourse, or erectile dysfunction. Independent studies showed increased risk of prostate cancer by consuming vitamin E supplements and eggs.

Fish oil supplements can slow growth of prostate cancer
Professor William Aronson and his team from the University of California at Los Angeles, studied and showed that low-fat diet with fish oil supplements can slow down the growth of prostate cancer. They made the discovery after testing prostate tissue samples taken from men with the disease. They found that just four to six weeks on the diet was enough to reduce the growth of cancer cells. The same effect was not seen in persons who took a regular western diet with no fish oil supplements.

Researchers said, “The finding that the low-fat, fish oil diet reduced the number of rapidly dividing cells in the prostate cancer tissue is important because the rate at which the cells are dividing can be predictive of future cancer progression. The lower the rate of proliferation, the lesser the chances that the cancer will spread outside the prostate where it is much harder to treat.”

The scientists tested blood samples before and after the diet commenced, and examined tissue from surgically removed prostate glands. “Preclinical studies suggest that lowering dietary omega-6 fatty acids from corn oil and increasing omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil decreases the risk of prostate cancer development and progression,” the scientists concluded.

The research team is now planning a larger study with 100 men with prostate cancers who were not being actively treated but receiving regular biopsies and check-ups.

Via

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Risk of increased severe attacks in kids by asthma drugs, FDA report http://www.knowabouthealth.com/risk-of-increased-severe-attacks-in-kids-by-asthma-drugs-fda-report/8968/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/risk-of-increased-severe-attacks-in-kids-by-asthma-drugs-fda-report/8968/#comments Fri, 28 Oct 2011 10:34:44 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8968 Related posts:
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Asthma is the common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction and bronchospasm. A study revealed one class of asthma drug can increase risk of hospitalization in children due to asthma attack.

Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. It is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment of acute symptoms is usually with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist like  salbutamol. For those who suffer daily attacks, a higher dose of inhaled glucocorticoid is used. In a severe asthma exacerbation, oral glucocorticoids are added to these treatment, in the case of severe persistent disease, oral steroids may be needed.

Some asthma drugs may increase kids’ risk of being hospitalized for an asthma attack
As per the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, seven million children in the U.S. have asthma (about 9%), and the rate has been climbing steadily in recent years.

Some kids with asthma are prescribed the drugs, called long-acting beta-agonists or LABAs to relax muscles around the airway and prevent symptoms like wheezing. But there is an evidence that long-term use of these drugs may slightly increase the risk of sudden serious symptoms, according to a new analysis from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

However, researchers said, it’s possible that when LABAs, are used in combination with inhaled corticosteroid medications, that extra risk disappears.According to Dr. Ann McMahon, who led the study, “These studies confirm our recommendations at the FDA that are already (on drug labels) for children and adolescents to use inhaled corticosteroids and LABAs together in one asthma product,”

The FDA report is based upon data from over 100 studies including about 60,000 people with asthma. The original trials were done by companies that market LABAs. The drugs include Merck’s Foradil and GlaxoSmithKline’s Serevent.

Compared to all patients who didn’t take LABAs, adults and kids who were prescribed the drugs were 27% more likely to end up in the hospital, or in rare cases die or require intubation, because of an asthma attack.

That extra risk was greatest in the youngest study participants. Kids between age 4 and 11 who were taking a LABA were 67% more likely to have an asthma-related hospitalization than those who weren’t getting the medication.

Researchers were in agreement that future studies should be designed to determine the underlying cause behind those attacks in the LABA users and whether they’re directly due to the medications themselves.

Via

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M13 virus used as building blocks for biomaterials http://www.knowabouthealth.com/m13-virus-used-as-building-blocks-for-biomaterials/8886/ Thu, 27 Oct 2011 10:29:11 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8886 Related posts:
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Biomaterial is any matter, surface, or construct that interacts with biological systems. Biomaterials can be produced either naturally or synthesized in the laboratory using a variety of chemical processes utilizing metallic, polymeric or ceramic components. They are often used and/or adapted for many medical applications, and thus comprise whole or part of a living structure or even a biomedical device which performs, augments, or replaces a natural function.

Biomaterials are used in very important medical activities like joint replacements, bone plates, bone cement, artificial ligaments and tendons, dental implants for tooth fixation, blood vessel prostheses, heart valves, skin repair devices (artificial tissue), cochlear replacements, contact lenses, breast implants etc.

Biomaterials must be compatible with the body and  issues of biocompatibility must be resolved before a product can be placed on the market and used in a clinical setting.

M13 virus
M13
 virus is a filamentous bacteriophage composed of circular single stranded DNA (ssDNA) which is 6407 nucleotides long encapsulated in approximately 2700 copies of the major coat protein P8, and capped with 5 copies of two different minor coat proteins (P9, P6, P3) on the ends. The minor coat protein P3 attaches to the receptor at the tip of the F pilus of the host Escherichia coli. It is a non-lytic virus. M13 plasmids are used for many recombinant DNA processes, and the virus has also been studied for its uses in nanostructures and nanotechnology.

Turning M13 virus into most important structural proteins in nature
Researchers, led by Seung-Wuk Lee, associate professor of bioengineering , UC Berkeley and faculty scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), have turned a benign M13 virus into an engineering tool for assembling structures that mimic collagen, one of the most important structural proteins in nature. This process they developed could eventually be used to manufacture materials with tunable optical, biomedical and mechanical properties such as cornea, teeth and skin.

The researchers chose the M13 virus which is harmless to humans and a model organism in research labs – because its long, “chopstick-like” shape with a helical groove on its surface closely resembling collagen fibers.

The technique the scientists developed entails dipping a flat sheet of glass into the viral bath, then slowly pulling it out at precise speeds. The sheet emerges with a fresh film of viruses attached to it. At a pulling rate ranging from 10-100 micrometers per minute, it could take 1-10 hours for an entire sheet to be processed.

By adjusting the concentration of viruses in the solution and the speed with which the glass is pulled, the researchers could control the liquid’s viscosity, surface tension, and rate of evaporation during the film growth process. Those factors determined the type of pattern formed by the viruses. The researchers created three distinct film patterns using this technique.

With a relatively low viral concentration of up to 1.5 milligrams per milliliter, regularly spaced bands containing filaments oriented at 90 degree angles to each other were formed.

The most complex pattern – described as “ramen-noodle-like” by the researchers – was formed using viral concentrations ranging from 4-6 milligrams per milliliter. By using the Advanced Light Source at LBNL, the researchers discovered that this highly ordered structure could bend light like a prism in ways never before observed in nature or other engineered materials.

Aligning collagen in a perpendicular, grid-like pattern creates transparency, and is the basis of corneal tissue. And corkscrew-shaped fibers, mineralized after interacting with calcium and phosphate, can generate the hardest parts of our body: bones and teeth. However, observed Lee “Unfortunately, collagen is a difficult material to study because it is hard to tune its physical and chemical structures. We needed a convenient model system to solve this problem.”

The team members believe their model approaches the way nature can dynamically change environmental variables when building tissues. They also demonstrated that their engineered films can serve as biological substrates. For future research, there are many opportunities for this technique, for example in the area of tissue regeneration and repair.

Via

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Blood pressure medication much better at bedtime http://www.knowabouthealth.com/blood-pressure-medication-much-better-at-bedtime/8911/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/blood-pressure-medication-much-better-at-bedtime/8911/#comments Wed, 26 Oct 2011 10:29:36 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8911 Related posts:
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Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. It usually refers to the   arterial pressure of the systemic circulation. During each heartbeat, BP varies between a maximum (systolic) and a minimum (diastolic) pressure. It is measured on the inside of an elbow at the brachial artery, which is the upper arm’s major blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. Normal blood pressure is 120/80 mm/Hg.

Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure is a cardiac chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure is elevated meaning that the heart is having to work harder than it should to pump the blood around the body. Persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors for stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure and arterial aneurysm, and is a leading cause of chronic kidney failure.

Medications
Several classes of medications, collectively referred to as antihypertensive drugs, are currently available for treating hypertension. Reduction of the blood pressure by 5 mmHg can decrease the risk of stroke by 34%, of  heart disease by 21%, and reduce the likelihood of dementia, heart failure, and mortality from cardiovascular disease.

Taking blood pressure medication at bedtime is better-a study
In a study, Dr Ramón Hermida and colleagues from the University of Vigo, Spain found that patients who took at least one blood- pressure lowering medication at bedtime had better control of their blood pressure and were less likely to experience strokes and heart problems than those who took their medications first thing in the morning. The results suggest that with little extra effort and at no extra cost, patients could significantly reduce their risk of heart attack, stroke and other heart conditions.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), “Hypertension is common around the world, mainly because people are living longer and due to factors such as obesity, changed life styles etc.However, while the treatment of the condition has been shown to prevent cardiovascular diseases and to extend and enhance life, we don’t seem to be managing high blood pressure as well as we could”.

The researchers set selected a group of 661 patients with chronic kidney disease and high blood pressure. They randomly assigned the patients to one of two groups. In one group the patients took all their prescribed hypertension medications first thing in the morning and in the other group they took at least one of them at bedtime.

They measured the patients’ blood pressure (by asking them to wear an ambulatory monitor for 48 hours) at the start of the study, and also 3 months after any change in treatment, or at the least, every year.

After a follow up of more than5 years, the researchers found that :

  • The patients who took at least one blood-pressure lowering medication at bedtime had an adjusted risk for total cardiovascular events two thirds lower than those who took the medicines when they woke up in the morning.
  • There was a similar significant reduction in risk for bedtime dosing for a composite of three events: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke.
  • Also, the patients who took at least one med at bedtime had a significantly lower average sleep-time blood pressure and more of them showed better control of ambulatory blood pressure

Hermida  concluded :

“Our results indicate that cardiovascular event rates in patients with hypertension can be reduced by more than 50% with a zero-cost strategy of administering blood pressure-lowering medications at bedtime rather than in the morning. This study also documents for the first time that sleep-time blood pressure is the most relevant independent marker of cardiovascular risk.”

Hypertension is a common problem in older people, who are on medication, almost, for rest of their life.  I know many people in my family that take blood pressure medication in the morning to meet their daily dose requirement.  The study does not go into, why the patients reduced their risk of heart conditions when they took medicine during bed time as suppose to morning.  But, I think the study prompts you to think that if this simple change in medication time can help your heart condition, it is worth pursuing.  Consult your physician regarding this study and switch to a bed time BP medication.

Via

 

 

 

 

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Dose of AP-5258 molecule fights dyslipidemia http://www.knowabouthealth.com/dose-of-ap-5258-molecule-fights-dyslipidemia/8879/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/dose-of-ap-5258-molecule-fights-dyslipidemia/8879/#comments Tue, 25 Oct 2011 10:38:11 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8879 Related posts:
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Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. cholesterol and/or fat) in the blood. Most dyslipidemias are hyperlipidemias; that is, an elevation of lipids in the blood, often due to diet and lifestyle. The prolonged elevation of insulin levels can lead to dyslipidemia. Increased levels of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) also cause dyslipidemia. Arteria discovered a molecul, which shows promise in fighting dyslipidemia and associated cardiac events.  The molecule is called AP-5258 and is highly active in inhibiting the intestinal absorption of lipids.

Diabetic dyslipidemia
Diabetic dyslipidemia
consists of specifically mild to marked elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (VLDLs) and VLDL remnants concentrations and low levels of HDL-C. Raised serum triglycerides and low HDL-C often precede the onset of T2DM for many years. In addition, LDL particles are converted to smaller, perhaps more atherogenic, lipoproteins termed ‘small-dense LDLs’. Different mechanisms are responsible for the development of dyslipidemia in individuals with diabetes. Defects in insulin action and hyperglycemia could lead to dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes. In the case of T2DM, the obesity/insulin-resistant state that is at the basis of the development of this disease can in itself lead to lipid abnormalities independently of hyperglycemia.

Severity worldwide
According to WHO, about 230 million people suffer from Type II diabetes worldwide, which is estimated to rise to 400 million by 2025. Around 40% of type 2 diabetes patients suffer from dyslipidemia, including hypertriglyceridemia. About 19 % of patients who suffer from both hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and hypertriglyceridemia (high blood fat) suffer from coronary disease.

Dose of AP-5258 molecule fights dyslipidemia and associated cardiac events
Professor Gérard Marguerie, chief scientific officer at Arteria announced obtaining highly promising results in preclinical non-regulatory studies for its AP-5258 molecule, an inhibitor of the CD36 receptor. During pre-clinical in vivo tests using a very substantial dose of AP-5258 molecule, the inhibitor demonstrated high intestinal activity, blocking the transfer of postprandial triglycerides.

The oral dose of molecule potentially reduces postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (high blood fat levels of triglycerides after eating) and protects patients from diabetic dyslipidemia. After consuming food, the body produces postprandial plasmatic triglycerides, known as the most powerful markers of cardiac events, particularly amongst diabetic women.

Professor Gérard Marguerie, explains:
“Animal pharmacology and toxicity tests on our AP-5258 molecule are extremely promising. We have been able to link this molecule with a target, the CD36 receptor, identify its mechanism of action and determine the measurable biological parameter, postprandial triglycerides. The fact that we have identified the intestine as the action site of the molecule will enable us to devise and implement an accelerated and simplified development program.”

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Malaria vaccine – a boon for millions of lives http://www.knowabouthealth.com/malaria-vaccine-a-boon-for-millions-of-lives/8800/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/malaria-vaccine-a-boon-for-millions-of-lives/8800/#comments Wed, 19 Oct 2011 23:38:04 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8800 Related posts:
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  15. Health officials ready for seasonal flu shots early this year
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 Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by eukaryotic protists of the genus Plasmodium. The disease results from the multiplication of Plasmodium parasites within red blood cells, causing symptoms that typically include fever and headache, in severe cases progressing to coma or death. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including much of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas. It claims nearly 800,000 lives a year, most of them children under five.

Medications
Chloroquine may be used where the parasite is still sensitive. However due to resistance one of three medications: mefloquine (Lariam), doxycycline, and the combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (Malarone) is needed. Doxycycline and the atovaquone and proguanil combination are best tolerated with mefloquine in case of neurological and psychiatric symptoms.

Development of Malaria vaccine
Scientists at British drug company GlaxoSmithKline have shown the results of the largest-ever malaria vaccine study, involving 15,460 babies and small children that can reduce the impact of the disease. The vaccine has been in development for almost two decades.

GSK chief executive Andrew Witty said, ”The addition of a malaria vaccine to existing control interventions such as bed nets and insecticide spraying could potentially help prevent millions of cases of this debilitating disease.”

He said the scientists were attempting the impossible when they started work on a vaccine 25 years ago.”When the team was first shown the data, quite a number of them broke down in tears,” he said. ”It was the emotion of what they had achieved – the first vaccine against a parasitic form of infection. They were overwhelmed. It says something about the amount of heart that has gone into this project.”

All the children received three doses either of vaccine or a placebo. Over the 12 months after immunization, the vaccine cut their risk of developing clinical malaria by 56% and of developing severe malaria by 47%.

The World Health Organization has said that if the results are satisfactory, it will issue a recommendation for its use and the vaccine may begin to be rolled out as early as 2015.

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Automation of cell cultivation by machine http://www.knowabouthealth.com/automation-of-cell-cultivation-by-machine/8721/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/automation-of-cell-cultivation-by-machine/8721/#comments Sun, 16 Oct 2011 04:00:03 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8721 Related posts:
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  4. Breakthrough device – Silicon nano robots can be embedded in cell
  5. Single cancer cell can be detected using sensitive microchip
  6. NIH Study- Cell phone radiation alters brain activity
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  9. ePetri dish – Smartphone based microscopy imaging platform
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  12. Tiny RNA molecules microRNA-101 starve cancer cells
  13. UK leading the march on prescription drug vending machine
  14. The EmbryoScope – An IVF incubator with built-in camera launched
  15. Kidney transplant patients may not require daily heavy medication
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Cell cultivation is a complex process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions i.e. culturing of cells derived from single cellular eukaryotes, especially animal cells. However, there are also cultures including viruses, bacteria and protists.

Cells are grown and maintained at an appropriate temperature and gas mixture (typically, 37°C, 5% CO2 for mammalian cells) in a cell incubator of plants, fungi and microbes, including viruses, bacteria and protists.

Requirement of cell Cultivation
Cell culture is a very essential process in medical science, the main uses being:

  • Manufacture of viral vaccines and other products of biotechnology,
  • Research in tissue engineering, stem cells and molecular biology,
  • Tissue culture and tissue engineering,
  • Cultivation of mesenchymal stem cells and preservation for future use, the major application being in stem cell industry,
  • Preparation of Vaccines for polio, measles, mumps, rubella, and chickenpox etc

Automatic Cell cultures by a machine
Cell culture has always been a time-consuming and laborious job as it is largely done by hand. Fraunhofer Institute and Max Planck Institute have developed a machine that completely automates the process of cultivating cells. The device consists of an array of modules: One of these is a robot that transports the vessels containing the cell cultures, known as multitier plates.

Dr. Albrecht Brandenburg, group manager at IPM describes another module: “A microscope regularly inspects the cells to assess the status and growth of the cultures. It transfers the S.O. plates to the microscope stage, focuses, switches lenses and activates the light sources it needs. The entire optical system is designed to withstand and operate in the high-humidity conditions the cells require. The results of microscopic analysis are fed into the system control, a capability never seen in automated cell cultivation before.”

A computer program assesses the microscope images and checks to determine the density of the surface of the vessel already covered in cells. If suitable cell colonies have formed, a hollow needle picks up cells ranging between 100 and 200 micrometers in size and transfers them to a new container.

A cell factory can be established for use in other applications like testing the effectiveness of various drugs. The system being modular, researchers in science and industry can also opt to automate certain steps involved. It will help researchers decode the functions of various proteins by injecting cells with the segment of the human genome that delivers the blueprint for the proteins under investigation.

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Reduction in risk of colorectal cancer by ginger http://www.knowabouthealth.com/reduction-in-risk-of-colorectreduction-in-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-by-ginger-al-cancer-ginger/8690/ http://www.knowabouthealth.com/reduction-in-risk-of-colorectreduction-in-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-by-ginger-al-cancer-ginger/8690/#comments Fri, 14 Oct 2011 02:23:28 +0000 http://www.knowabouthealth.com/?p=8690 Related posts:
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  6. Developing countries at risk of unstoppable cancer epidemic
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  8. Increased risk of prostate cancer by eating eggs
  9. Drinking coffee reduces risk of basal cell skin cancer
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  11. Vitamin E supplements escalates prostate cancer risk, finds study
  12. Study recommends breast, ovary removal for women at high cancer risk
  13. Post menopause weight gain likely to raise risk of endometrial cancer
  14. COPD to pose greater risk than heart failure and cancer
  15. Tanning beautiful skin can enhance cancer risk
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Ginger is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale, consumed as a delicacy, medicine, or spice. The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of  zingerone,   shogaols and gingerols, volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger.

The gingerrols present in ginger increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic, sedative, antipyretic and antibacterial properties. Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer and a study at the University of Michigan has shown that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells.

Advanced glycation end-products are possibly associated in the development of several pathophysiologies, including diabetic cataract for which ginger was effective in preliminary studies, apparently by acting through antiglycating mechanisms.

Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea, which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries.

Colon and Colon Cancer
The human colon is a muscular, tube-shaped organ measuring about 4 feet long. It extends from the end of the small bowel to the anus, twisting and turning through abdomen (belly). The colon has 3 main functions.

  • To digest and absorb nutrients from food,
  • To concentrate fecal material by absorbing fluid (and electrolytes) from it,
  • To store and control evacuation of fecal material

The right side of your colon plays a major role in absorbing water and electrolytes, while the left side is responsible for storage and evacuation of stool.

Colon or Colorectal cancer, is a cancer caused by uncontrolled cell growth in the colon, rectum, or vermiform appendix. Most colon cancers are adenocarcinomas-tumors that develop from the glands lining the colon’s inner wall. Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world, but it is more common in the  developed countries,  with around 60% of cases diagnosed.

Ginger decreases the risk of colon cancer
As per the study published in Cancer Prevention Research, M Zick, a naturopathic physician and research associate professor at University of Michigan Medical Center and her colleagues found that ginger may decrease the risk of colon cancer by diminishing the inflammation in the gut.

They  selected 30 volunteers to take pills containing two grams of either placebo powder or ginger root extract, equivalent to about two tablespoons of ground-up raw ginger root and recorded the inflammations in the participants’ intestines before and after. They found that participants taking ginger pills had 28% less inflammation in their intestines after the test, but no difference was found in those who took placebo.

Although the findings are promising, the researchers are not yet recommending people start taking more ginger with the meals as the study only involved 30 participants. Zick said they will launch a larger study in the future to ascertain the results with specific certainty.

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